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Vol 2 - Issue 1

Entropy: Thermodynamics – Energy – Environment – Economy

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4D Printing: Comfort blindness and/or a systemic approach prohibited?

By adding possible temporal changes of form and/or functionality to additive manufacturing, 4D printing brings new potentials to this still expanding new field. While there is transgressive promise associated with this technology with high growth potential in academic research, targeted applications are far from being achieved. On the basis of this assessment, it appears that related fields, in a situation of possible disciplinary porosity, can, with some creativity, move away from the current highly self-centered work to try to re-invigorate 4D printing, provided that the risk-taking in interdisciplinary research is better supported. A proposal for a "roadmap" that is likely to be improved is proposed: it concerns on the one hand, a scientific axis where the 4D activity researched relies on original couplings between materials (including meta-materials) and processes, hybrid multi-material fabrications, and on the other hand, an organizational axis where interdisciplinarity and risk-taking would be privileged.

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Volume 21- 2

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