Adiabatic compressed air energy storage (A-CAES) is a promising storage technology to face the challenges of high shares of renewable energies in an energy system by storing electric energy for periods of several hours up to weeks. In order to reduce the investment costs and increase the flexibility of the storage system, the so called KompEx LTA-CAES® was developed by Fraunhofer UMSICHT. This new A-CAES concept is using a combination of reversibly operable turbo- and piston machines (KompEx machines). Doing so, these modules can achieve wide CAS pressure ranges (corresponding to high exergy densities) and thus can be combined with any compressed air storage volume. To realize efficient and stable operation despite a wide pressure range, a suitable control strategy of both KompEx machines is required. This paper investigates the introduced A-CAES system by a dynamic simulation, focusing on the interaction and synergy between the reversibly operable turbo- and piston machines. Results indicate that the roundtrip efficiency of this system is expected to be at the low end (55,5%) of literature values for A-CAES (52–66% for low-temperature A-CAES), which is relatively high compared to published A-CAES systems considering similar pressure ranges.
High-temperature heat pump (HTHP) is a promising technology for decarbonization of process heating through electrification and energy efficiency. Exploiting the potentials requires a simultaneous optimization of the cycle layout and the working fluid. This paper proposes an efficient cascade HTHP and optimizes its thermodynamic performance. Using steam for high-temperature loop and use of alternative hydrocarbons for low-temperature loop are examined. On the application level, district heating is considered as a heat source and evaluated for different supply temperatures, including 80 °C, 70 °C and 40 °C. The results reveal that pentane with highest critical temperature among the suggested hydrocarbons, shows the best energy performance to be paired with steam in the proposed cascade HTHP system. However, concerning the hydrocarbon compressor volumetric heating capacity (VHC) and safety issues, butane is an excellent candidate. In addition, when the heat available in the main transmission lines of district heating unit is considered as the source cooled from 80 °C down 70 °C, the highest value of coefficient of performance (COP) is achieved as 2.74 for the sink condensation temperature of 160 °C.