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Technology and Innovation

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[FORTHCOMING] Research at the crossroads of design thinking and game or play
Stéphane Goria

It is common to study scientific production through bibliometric analyses. In this article, we propose to focus more specifically on research that revolves around both design thinking or an approach to design closely related to it, and on the game or the transformation of devices through gamification. To accomplish this, we have assembled an initial reference corpus by querying the title field of three international scientific resources (Google Scholar, Scopus, and Web of Science). This work has two objectives. The first is to estimate the evolution and distribution of research on these topics over the past 20 years. The second pertains to whether or not it is worthwhile to track this evolution through the sole indexing portal for international scientific works, Web of Science. We demonstrate, through the creation of a second corpus, that concerning research on these subjects, the Web of Science platform provides a fairly good overview of ongoing work, provided that a reference corpus is established by querying the abstract field, not just the title field.

[FORTHCOMING] Serious games and design thinking: a possible combinaison?
Julian Alvarez

This chapter presents two socio-technical systems that combine the use of serious games, especially digital ones, with design thinking. The aim of this approach is to test whether such a combination is possible. To this end, we conduct a comparative study of two serious games in which we were involved. Through a reflexive approach and by mobilizing surveys and field studies, the approach is not only feasible, but also allows for a good complementarity between game phases and design thinking. However, the way in which the game activity is conceived seems essential to achieve this. In fact, the strategy of combining these two phases is more effective than superimposing them.

[FORTHCOMING] From Design Thinking to Design Fiction
Thomas Michaud

Design thinking is a method of creativity based on empathy, storytelling and prototyping. These three characteristics are explained in particular by Tim Brown, one of whose books, Change by design (2009) is studied precisely in this article which seeks to establish a connection with design fiction, this new approach to design based on prototyping from of the science fiction imaginary. The Near Future Laboratory book The Manual of Design Fiction (2022) serves as a reference for analyzing the links between design fiction and design thinking. The Esoldat project is an example of design fiction whose function is notably to produce foresight. Science fiction and design thinking make it possible to extract the imaginary of organizations and create stories to optimize strategic discourse. Design fiction would therefore benefit from turning to design thinking methods to further improve a methodology oriented towards the implementation of innovation policies using the imaginary of experts, but also of organizational employees.

[FORTHCOMING] Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Defense Innovations: Theoretical Proposals and Illustrations
Pierre Barbaroux

This contribution questions the dynamics of the aerospace and defense (A&D) industries by identifying the main factors acting on innovation. Based on the model developed by [BAR 19] and [BAR 20], the research examines the dynamics of defense innovations incorporating components from Artificial Intelligence (AI) research. Considered as a General Purpose Technology (GPT; [BRE 96]), AI and its multiple applications have a significant impact on current and future military capabilities, and constitute relevant empirical material for understanding how innovation operates in the A&D industries.

[FORTHCOMING] New Space Representations in Science Fiction, From a Global Vision to a European Perspective
Thomas Michaud

New Space designates the emergence of an economic system in the space sector in which more and more private actors are called upon to participate. Science fiction has been offering representations of the companies of space capitalism for several years. This article studies some of them, such as the films Space Sweepers, Venom, or the Salvation series, and shows that the figure of the New Space billionaire arouses both fascination and rejection. If these fictions are inspired by real characters like Elon Musk, they also influence the general public and the actors of the space sector. These stories are at the center of strategic and soft power issues. It is suggested that Europe should equip itself with an effective and performative system for creating space science fiction stories in order to optimize the creativity of its future entrepreneurs. Indeed, these stories often offer a reflection on the ethics of space conquest and imagine technologies that could become major innovations in the future.

[FORTHCOMING] The New Space: Ruptures and Transformations of the Space Ecosystem
Christophe Bénaroya, Victor Dos Santos Paulino

After a first long phase of governmental and scientific development, the space sector has been shaken up by new approaches during the 2000s, grouped under the generic term "New Space". Through the study of the evolution of this ecosystem, this academic work proposes a characterization of the New Space, considered as a set of ruptures composed of new entrants, new applications, new technologies, new regulations, new processes, and new modes of financing. But, beyond that, it emphasizes that these breakthroughs are fed by their interaction and interdependence. Finally, this richness of the New Space leads us to identify the numerous implications for the economic and management sciences, whether in terms of research programs or teaching.

[FORTHCOMING] Patent ‘Wars’: Between Myth and Reality
Marc Baudry, Beatrice Dumont

The proliferation of patent litigation is indicative of the tension that exists between, on the one hand, the need to ensure interoperability and compatibility between a product’s components and, on the other, respect for intellectual property (IP) rights. In this article, we show that this tension is not new. Patent "wars" have historically been associated with breakthrough innovations, and reflect the growing importance of business models based on the valorisation of IP. While recognizing the sometimes deleterious effects of the litigation dynamic, litigation can be seen as a means of ex-post adjusting the scope of rights conferred by IP.

[FORTHCOMING] Boosting the Innovation Capacity of SMEs in a Changing World
Claudine Gay, Bérangère Szostak

Despite their strengths, SMEs appear to have an insufficiently exploited potential for innovation. This is especially true in times of crisis. In a context characterised by three sources of destabilisation – economy of platform, the COVID-19 health crisis and market tensions – this article aims to suggest ways of boosting the innovation capacity of SMEs. After recalling the main obstacles of SMEs in terms of innovation – which are mainly due to limited access to resources –, and their main strength – which is mainly due to their organisational structure –, we consider how these changes challenge the capacity of SMEs to innovate. The resulting management and research issues lead us to shift the cursor from the SME’s manager to its teams and from outside collaborative innovation to inside collaborative innovation.

[FORTHCOMING] Agility and Resilience of the French “Industrie du Futur” During the Covid-19 Pandemic: Insights from a Multi-dimensional Framework
Marcos Lima, Patricia Baudier, Marie Haikel Elsabeh, Michel Dalmas

This multi-case study analyzes the role of organizational factors influencing Industry 5.0 resilience during the early stages of the Covid-19 pandemic in France. McKinsey’s 7S framework is used to understand how eight French Small and Medium Businesses belonging to the “Industrie du Futur” alliance adapted their strategy, structure, systems, skills, staff, shared values and management style while relying on their shared values to develop organizational agility and resilience. Our findings confirm that, even if technology systems were a key component of their response to the Covid-19 situation, human elements also played a central role in their ability to cope with the crisis. Our research also shed light on the importance of stakeholder networks in an organization’s ability to adapt and prosper during crises. The resulting framework could help companies to develop a human-centric approach to agility and resilience.

[FORTHCOMING] From Innovative Milieu to Eco-innovative Milieu: Towards a Sustainable Territorial Development
Fedoua Kasmi

The aim of this article is to discuss the potential of the eco-innovative milieu for understanding the dynamics of sustainable local innovation. This approach is mainly based on the European theory of innovative milieus but seeks to integrate the sustainability dimension in the analysis of territorial innovation networks. We consider that the industrial symbioses, in which a collective of territorial actors are linked by relations of valorization of material and waste flows, can take the form of an eco-innovative milieu. These relationships can be at the origin of the emergence of new dynamics of innovation through the collective learning that results from the common management of resources in the territory (adoption of new eco-responsible practices, development of new sustainable technologies, reinforcement of communication and exchange of knowledge around these new practices...). We illustrate our reasoning with an example of application to the industrial territory of Dunkirk, France.

[FORTHCOMING] Integration of social and ecological indicators in analysis methods of bioeconomic and agri-food value chains in developing countries
Ludovic Temple, Marie-Hélène Dabat, Angel Avadí

The bioeconomy calls into question the methods for evaluating the performance of value chains. Traditional methods closely linked to industrial economics remain polarized by macroeconomic or intersectoral indicators. They take little account of hidden costs or social and environmental externalities. In different contexts, we observe a renewal of the methodological frameworks for analyzing the value chains to supplement the economic performance indicators with environmental and social indicators. Their objective is then to better characterize the structures likely to make compatible, economic activity, social justice, and the reduction of the footprint of human activity. By compiling different case studies of agricultural, food and bioeconomic value chains, we document the nature of the environmental and social indicators referenced, the analysis tools used and the limits of their use in the context of developing countries.

[FORTHCOMING] The sustainability of the bioeconomy and bio-based value chains: tools and issues
Aliénor de Rouffignac, Stéphanie Gast, Blandine Laperche, Marie-France Vernier

The bioeconomy, in its ambition to replace fossil carbon by renewable carbon, is structured by the creation of bio-based value chains. However, the organic origin of a value chain does not guarantee its sustainability. By considering the value chain as a meso-system, this article explores how sustainability, whether considered strong or weak, is taken into account in in the academic literature on the bioeconomy and bio-based value chains. Based on the lack of simultaneous integration of social, environmental and economic dimensions of sustainability and the small amount of work analyzing value chains in a holistic way, we propose to set up a methodology to analyze and build sustainable bio-based value chains based on the principles of eco-design and life cycle assessment, using the example of the creation of a borage micro value chain in the Hauts de France.

[FORTHCOMING] The valorisation of hemp in France: from historical production trajectories to new cannabinoid outlets
Aliénor de Rouffignac, Jérémie Bastien, Romain Debref

This article examines the mutation of the historical French hemp production industry caused by the authorization of economic valorization of the hemp flower for its THC and CBD molecules. We demonstrate that sociotechnical controversies and existing uncertainty limit the perspectives of the circular bioeconomy concept proposed by the European Union, which aims to valorize the entire plant. We combine innovation, industry, and dominant design theories to understand how the historical dominant design responds to these pressures. After a brief historical review, we first present the historical dominant design of the hemp industry in France and its cascade production organization inspired by the wood industry. Then, we show its differences with the one dedicated to the valorization of these molecules of interest derived from the flower. Two results arise from this study. On the one hand, our findings demonstrate the existence of a new production organization based on "inverted cascade production" working on new productive and innovative models. On the other hand, the implementation of a strategy encouraging the circular bioeconomy and the pursuit of zero waste generates a cohabitation of the historical dominant design with another emerging design.

[FORTHCOMING] Recovery of roadside biomass: the contribution of demonstrators to the deployment of a sustainable supply chain
Brunelle MARCHE, Mauricio CAMARGO, Christophe BACHMANN

The current context marked by the acceleration of climate change, the scarcity of resources and geopolitical tensions implies a review of the French energy strategy, giving priority to biomass-energy as the main source of renewable energy. The roadsides along French roads represent nearly 5,000 km², thus constituting a biomass potential that has not yet been recovered. Thus, considering roadsides as a source of sustainable bioeconomy requires a change in practices in order to better exploit this potential. Several studies have highlighted the importance of territorial demonstrators for the implementation of practices and emerging supply chains. In this perspective, this article seeks to propose a conceptual framework for the implementation of a demonstrator for the sustainable management of roadsides for valorization purposes, based on the cross-referencing of information from the literature on demonstrators and on the sustainable supply chain.

[FORTHCOMING] Essential oils: the renaissance of natural and sustainable ingredients
Miriana Kfoury, Sophie Fourmentin

After giving away to synthetic chemicals between the 1930s and 1960s, essential oils, known since ancient times, are making a comeback. The global essential oils market has grown steadily in the last decades, thanks to, particularly, the rise in the demand for natural compounds. Actually, these aromatic plant extracts have become unavoidable raw materials for the development of sustainable and eco-friendly products. This is due not only to their organoleptic properties but also to their multiple benefits and their broad action spectrum against micro-organisms, insects, etc. This article presents the renaissance and development of the essential oils market, focusing on the French sector. It then summarizes the factors that can influence this sector, such as those that determine the expansion of the application of essential oils in aromatherapy, the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries, as well as in plant protection products. It also discusses constraints that could weaken the sector, such as climatic variations, price rises or the emergence of new regulations. Finally, a brief overview of the importance of the molecular encapsulation in cyclodextrins to overcome the limitations associated with the intrinsic properties of essential oils is given.

[FORTHCOMING] Biomass as a driver of the green economy: the example of the flax sector in maritime Flanders
François Delattre

Replacing fossil fuels with renewable materials will be at the heart of the climate and economic challenges of the next few years. Whether for the production of energy or manufactured products, the billions of tonnes of oil extracted each year will have to be replaced by large-scale biomass exploitation. From the point of view of environmental constraints, the intensification of biomass production and its integration into the bio-economic sphere are not without their pitfalls, as they run counter to sustainable development and certain precepts of the eco-economy. In a context of massive use of biomass, the contribution of all local and regional resources will be needed. Flax, an ancestral and virtuous fiber, is a good example of sustainable production with a territorial and global vocation. It offers major economic development opportunities that a region like French Flanders must seize.

[FORTHCOMING] Representations of the house of the future in science fiction, what impact on the collective imagination and on research laboratories

Since the 1980s, home automation and the digital home have been announced as the new era, ideal for the rest of housewives, and safe for families. However, if many university and industrial research laboratories are working hard on it, the market does not seem to take off in reality. This brake on success turns out to be partially, at least, linked to the collective imagination of the house of the future: many fictional elements concerning it deal with a form of black utopia, unconsciously charging the mind with a certain fear of what might happen. This article aims to highlight the difficult but inevitable relationship between works of science fiction and research on the house of the future.

[FORTHCOMING] Participation experience in a codesign process : analysis of the course-of-action of three actors
Mélanie Tremblay, Christine Hamel, Anabelle Viau-Guay, Dominique Giroux

Codesign, or the involvement of target users in the design of a product or service, is promising but does not guarantee the achievement of objectives. Drawing on the latest work from the course of action [THE 15], we examined the experience of three people who participated in codesign sessions in cyberhealth. Our analysis resulted in maps of these individuals’ experiences, which visually represent the dynamics of their experience and highlight what was significant from their point of view. Our results suggest that participants were strongly mobilized by the reinterpretation of elements they believed were shared in their communities. They were concerned with systemic issues that, although complementary, questioned the solution proposed for the cogesign project. Our results lead us to propose three avenues to explore to optimize the codesign process.

[FORTHCOMING] The human body as it is (mis)treated in science-fiction motion pictures
Olivier Parent

Through a prospective reading of a science fiction movies selection, the author examines the evolution of the relationship that our so-called modern societies have with the human body — between research and phantasms, contemporary ethics and new ontology, contemporary expectations and future challenges. The films on which the author relies are Gattaca (1997, directed by Andrew Niccol), Blade Runner (1982, by Ridley Scott), Morgan (2016, Luke Scott), Repo Men (2010, Miguel Sapochnik), Terminator: Dark Fate (2019, Tim Miller), Selfless (2015, Tarsem Singh) and Chappie (2015, Neill Blomkamp). He thus tackles three key subjects such as they are dealt with in the speculative futures of these films, but which have their roots in our present: the genetic revolution and the risks of eugenics, the biomechanical revolution and the commercial temptation and, finally, a human ontology disrupted by the emergence of new alterities. In conclusion, the author offers an interpretation of the evolution of these relationships to the body, which he calls ―From sacred body to merchandised body‖.

[FORTHCOMING] Video games, artificial life and neurotechnologies in science fiction movies: a technomorphic imaginary
Thomas Michaud

This article analyzes the representations of future video games from three science fiction films, Free Guy, Ultimate Game and Striking Viper (Black Mirror series). If the first is a new example of representation of an artificial intelligence revolt, the other two show applications of neurotechnologies. The latter are the subject of research by companies like Neuralink and could be the foundation of post-metaverse communication networks. Telepathy and neuroconnection are technotypes addressed by science fiction and which could generate sectoral myths in the future by revolutionizing the video geme industry. These science fiction films constitute an imaginary serving as a basis for an ethical and prospective reflection guiding research and development in computer science and virtual reality. The Frankenstein complex suggests that these fictions could be limits to innovation. They are also sources of inspiration for capitalsm constantly seeking new marketable technologies. By arousing a phenomenon of catharsis, this technomorphic imaginary makes it possible to purge the process of innovation of its negative passions and to direct it towards the progress of humanity.

[FORTHCOMING] Charlie Brooker’s series Black Mirror : mirror dystopia or dystopian mirror?
Marilyn Lemery

Charlie Brooker’s Black Mirror series is a futuristic projection of new technologies whose primary objective is to improve our daily lives. The series examines artificial intelligence, digitalisation, gamification and robotisation of our daily lives, augmented reality and virtual reality. The mirror held up by Charlie Brooker is sometimes blackened, sometimes true to our reality. The series reflects the utopian intentions of the technologies implemented and shows to what extent human use reminds us of the dangers and highlights the dystopian side of all these new technologies when man appropriates or distorts them to serve his own interests. These works of anticipation, by hybridising the fictional and the real, reveal both the dystopian and the mirror aspects, allowing the viewer to engage in both a reflective and self-reflexive process.

[FORTHCOMING] Building an Agile Design Thinking using the Customer Journey Map

Design Thinking (DT) is a problem-solving approach based on a collaborative process involving end-user feedback. This process consists of different steps with different iterations and changes over time. However, DT is still a linear method, which takes time to implement a solution and does not deal with the work organization within the team. To address the limitations of DT and to reduce the development time, this paper proposes the integration of agile method into journey map, which is one of DT tools used to analyze the user needs. The proposed approach was called Agile Design Thinking (ADT). The results show that journey map permits an agile management approach in DT. This integration ensures the user participation and enables an effective interaction between the user and the team, a rapid implementation of concrete solutions, and a fast reaction to the user appreciation. A case study was conducted on the well-being of elders at home to illustrate the implementation of the proposed ADT. This study was successfully carried out by students of IDEAS (Innovation et Design EvAlués par les uSages) master’s degree at the ENSGSI (Ecole Nationale Supérieure en Génie des Systèmes et de l’Innovation) engineering school.

[FORTHCOMING] Science fiction and technology: between desirable obsession and abhorrence
Sébastien Damart, Sonia Adam-Ledunois, Marie Roussie

If technology is a major theme in science fiction (SF), its treatment in movies is heterogeneous. Based on a comparative analysis of three artworks of science fiction, Star Trek, The Matrix and Black Mirror, the article proposes to build a continuum of analysis about the place and role of technology in works of science-fiction. At one end of the continuum, technology is a background that is not the subject of debate, but which, eventually, is a framework that facilitates a debate on a societal issue. At another extreme, technology is threatening and consubstantially opens the door to post-humanism. Between the two extremes, SF provides a critique of the perverse and cynical uses that our societies make of new technologies.

[FORTHCOMING] Science fiction and "imaginary innovations": a typological essay on total memory technologies
Emmanuelle Caccamo

This paper presents a classification of the various types of "total memory" technologies that have been imagined in a corpus of audiovisual science fiction between 1990 and 2022. These technologies, which often use the metaphor of memory as a database or plan, are depicted as allowing for the digitization and storage of human memories, as well as the retrieval and even modification of these memories and the identities of individuals. Through this analysis, this paper aims to explore such technological innovations for the enhancement or alteration of human mnemonic abilities.

[FORTHCOMING] Play & Pulse: A tool-based approach to help engineering students take users into consideration
Florence BAZZARO, Marjorie CHARRIER

Designing user-friendly products requires methodological skills but also an empathetic and collaborative approach towards the user. A wide variety of tools from many disciplinary fields are traditionally used in design thinking or user-centred design, which sometimes makes it difficult to choose and train in these tools. Within the framework of our research and educational activities, we have proposed a tool-based approach to guide the engineering student towards a better consideration of the user when designing a new product. The tool-based approach has been used for several semesters and has been evaluated by students. The results highlight the usefulness of the tools and the approach as well as the support it provides for taking the user into account, adopting an empathic approach and multidisciplinary work. The results also highlight a difference in appropriation according to the profiles of engineering students. These results allow us to conclude on the relevance of the P&P approach from a pedagogical point of view and on ways of improving the approach.