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Technology and Innovation


List of Articles

[FORTHCOMING] Ludopedagogy told by a sponge
Julian Alvarez

The aim of this chapter is to present a range of terms and concepts: “Ludopedagogy”, “Serious Game”, “Gamification”, “Ludification”, “Ludicisation”, “Serious Toy”, “Serious Gaming”, “Degamification” and “Toyification”. They are all related to “ludopedagogy”. To contextualize what we’re saying, we’ll use an artifact - a sponge - as a support. The aim of this approach is to show how a simple artifact can be instrumentalized to help people discover different play-related concepts and utilitarian applications. This approach shows that social constructs and individual subjectivity are at work in understanding all these terms.


[FORTHCOMING] Decarbonization – A Perspective for the Last 30 Years and Other Emerging Topics
Jean-Pierre Birat

This article deals with the decarbonization of the economy through a personal account of the trajectory followed by the Steel sector, which went through several crises followed by periods of intense creativity, and is now moving into industrial implementation, even if Net-Zero will not be achieved until 2050, supposing the process does not run into too many obstacles. One also questions the relative roles of large organizations versus that of individuals: but both are deeply entangled. Moreover, in parallel to decarbonization, biodiversity loss and air pollution should be also be addressed, as well as more social and political issues such as migrations and inequalities. Last, one suggests to take on board the agency of all living creatures and of inanimate objects in order to deal with these issues in all their complexity.


[FORTHCOMING] When colours are born from the womb An introduction to the responsible design and biosourced colours
Céline CAUMON

We rarely pay attention to the functions and uses of colour. Yet colour is part of our daily lives, and is as much a part of the history, culture, technology and health of individuals as it is of their environments. Design at the service of colour, colour at the service of design generates, that is to say, invents and designs projects and products geared to the right needs of men and women. A colour that lies between ancestral poetic practices and future uses. As an introduction to responsible design and colour; through a panorama of collaborative approaches, research carried out in workshop-laboratories and consultancies; and through an analysis of future societal trends, this text attempts to formulate the issues, conceptions, representations and postures of a biosourced design-colour between the arts and sciences, territories and economic heritage, fashion and beauty, food and care. Design as methodological alternatives and future production methods to counter the imaginary commercialism promoted by current design models.


[FORTHCOMING] Alternative practices: The example of natural textile dyeing with lichens, between a material for colouring and a material for inspiration
Aurélie Couvrat

The topic of bio-based colours is now at the heart of a number of theories particularly in relation to so-called "alternative" practices. Among these, natural dyeing offers many possibilities. This article focuses on the case of lichens, small symbiotic beings with astonishing colouring power. Their role is ambivalent – they are used for traditional purposes, but are also ideal for experimentation, opening up new creative possibilities. As well as being a colouring material, lichen is also a source of inspiration, particularly in the field of textile design. This study of an example of the dyeing process details the various stages from the garden to the kitchen, highlighting the importance of the procedure. Finally, a practical demonstration of combining two colouring materials (Evernia Prunastri lichen and yellow onions) illustrates some of the possibilities for exploration, underlining the diversity of parameters that can be used to develop the resultant colour palettes.


[FORTHCOMING] From the Landes de Gascogne region, to biosourced colors in ceramic practice
Lucie LING

The analysis begins with an exploration of the terrain on a site in Gironde affected by fires in the summer of 2022. The transformed materials emerge from the rugged terrain, a source for exploring and materials in the context of ceramic practice. How ceramic practice reveal the chromatic singularities of these components thinking of them as "bio-sourced" colors? From collection to technique to the valorization of local materials, the challenge is to recognize a color to a locality and a heritage, by manufacturing color from natural natural and/or recyclable resources.


[FORTHCOMING] Local-based honeys: from radiance to colorama Creating a beekeeping terroir using imagined colours
Delphine DÉJEAN

There is a gap between diversity of single and multi-flower honeys actually produced in Occitanie -region in which the study was carried out- and that found on French tables. Only a few iconic acacia, chesnut, lavender or “all flower” honeys are promoted by retails outlets, which help to stereotype tastes and colours of honeys. Unlike the wine, olive and more recently brewery industries which are expandind rapidly, consumers identify honeys based on restricted criteria of colour, texture and flavour. This phenomenon of impoverished production is mainly due to a lack of knowledge about qualities of honeys and their geographical environment. The image of the bees as the jewel in the crown of biodiversity and environmental health, along with the symbolism attached to the colour of honey and to the products of the hive, help to build and highlight a territorial image, a collective representation of an identity of the beekeeping terroir shaped by soil, climate, people and imagination. The challenge is therefore to create a beekeeping terroir to promote a unifying sector with an innovative heritage. In this context, colour-design envisions the places of honey, between chromatic collections and imagined colours to draw a new colourama of honey.


[FORTHCOMING] The senso-chromatic palette: a tool to enhance and create, from territory’s resources to the plate
Élodie Bécheras

Beyond its status as a painter’s accessory, the palette is also a design tool, a paradigmatic space of representation and modelling of colour and sensorial design thinking, which is highly versatile in application and has the capacity for inter-field transferability. By characterising and ordering the sensory and chromatic markers of local bioresources and their ’growing environments’, the sensory-chromatic palette aims to structure a sensory-chromatic identity for a food territory that can be transferred and exploited in different contexts and sectors of food development and production. Starting with a short collaborative experiment based around the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region, combining the design of palettes and culinary creations, this article sets out to put the theoretical and practical models of such an approach into perspective, to formulate the issues involved and to consider its potential for application and innovation, particularly in the agri-food sector.


[FORTHCOMING] The naturalness of organic and vegan colors-materials in cosmetics
Nathalie Wiart

Certified organic cosmetics differ from vegan cosmetics in the nature of the raw materials used. Although veganism admits non-natural ingredients, the organic-vegan pair forms a lexicon associated with the representation of naturalness within society. The result is a palette of specific vocabularies and colors, to which matter is added. This research is part of a CIFRE agreement. Make-up is approached as a material-color to be applied, named and formulated, with a view to industrial production.


[FORTHCOMING] Financing the energy transition
P. Jean Valayer, Noémie Wouters

Published oil and gas reserves are sufficient to saturate the carbon budget published by the IPCC. Our prospects seem to be: either of a failing to stop the extraction of carbon products in time to avoid climate disaster, or of incurring economic losses with hardly predictable consequences due to the considerable stranding of carbon assets, brought about by constraining but existential regulations. To face this situation, this article proposes to put in place as quickly as possible an accounting procedure within companies supplying the carbon energy chain. It consists of a provision providing for the replacement of assets dedicated to carbon energy. Funded from its implementation, it will ensure the decarbonization of investment decisions upstream. Within the annual accounts of industries producing oil, gas and coal, the need to replace assets associated with energies dependent on carbon of fossil origin will thus be recorded at its heart. Inviting the timely provision of the capital necessary to avoid stranding, the provision will be calculated according to an energy-fair book value of the assets thus intended to be replaced… on time. In a context where clean energy technologies are hungry for financing, where the emissions quota system clearly gives insufficient signals to investors, but where investment precedents are nevertheless inspiring, we address key success factors involved by our procedure, including its effectiveness in conversion capacity, filling - on time? - the need for clean energy, and its attractiveness for investors. It will be necessary to draw the road map with the participation of international legal and financial governance, the list of which we justify.


[FORTHCOMING] Decarbonization, a driver of a real systemic transformation of the techno-industrial sector? The case of the automobile industry in Yvelines
Dalila MESSAOUDI, Margaux ALAMARTINE

This article aims to explore decarbonization as a catalyst for industrial transformation, considering the tensions between the need to reindustrialize territories and taking into account environmental issues. Through the example of the reconversion of Renault Flins into a circular economy factory in the Yvelines department, it highlights the challenges and opportunities linked to this change, while emphasizing the importance of understanding the complex mechanisms that govern interactions in this new ecosystem.


[FORTHCOMING] Serious game: human or animal invention?
Julian Alvarez

The aim of this chapter is to determine whether the Serious Game is a human invention. To answer this question, we propose to check whether both Serious Game and Serious Play can be found in the animal kingdom. If such a census proves negative, then we can conclude that the Serious Game could indeed correspond to a human invention. If this were not the case, then Serious Play would be better regarded as inter-species activities. This would then lead us to study whether it is possible to identify common aspects and specificities between species. If, at the same time, it is possible to identify animals that also used objects to play for utilitarian purposes, then we could see the Serious Game not as an invention, but rather as the object of human innovation. To carry out this study, we will conduct a hypothetico-deductive analysis combining readings from ethology, biology and the humanities.


[FORTHCOMING] Serious games as a provocative research method?
Hélène Michel, Zeinab Sheet, Guy Parmentier

This paper explores the use of serious games as provocative methods in research. Through a detailed case study of research through gaming, the authors demonstrate how the researcher becomes a provocative agent who influences the dynamics studied, revealing behaviours otherwise inaccessible through traditional methods. This interdisciplinary approach enriches research but presents challenges in terms of method validation. Serious games require diverse skills and raise important ethical questions, particularly regarding participant protection. Ultimately, they transform research practice, promoting a more creative and engaged exploration of social phenomena.


[FORTHCOMING] Variety and benefits of agile games to organizational innovation
Stéphane Goria

Agile games form a special category of serious games, because they are historically and above all associated with so-called agile methods. These methods emerged in the 1990s and they were structured around a manifesto in the early 2000s. Initially, these methods were essentially designed to improve the management of software and information technology design and development teams. Since then, their scope has been extended to the management of almost all types of projects and organizations. The success of some of their implementations has made the adjective "agile" trendy, leading to its overuse as a language element to describe a company as competitive or innovative. After a brief presentation of these methods, we turn in this text to the agile games that have been developed to promote them or accompany certain steps in their implementation. We draw up a cartography of these games, based on data collected from five websites and one book dedicated to them. Based on this collection, we estimate the variety and usefulness of these games. In fact, we present different sub-categories of these games, qualifying them and describing the most popular among the sources surveyed.


[FORTHCOMING] Innovation with microgames for hospital management: using serious games to generate response plans against cyberterrorism
Natalia Zwarts, Niek Jan van den Hout

Cybersecurity is one of the fastest growing professions, requiring a growing number of competent decision-makers. The need to make adequate decisions is not limited only to Information and Communication Technology (ICT) specialists, but is also largely the responsibility of management. One of the methods to improve decision-making is to exercise through scenario-based serious games offering a preparedness review before a crisis materializes. The decision scope also changes with some new actors: politically, financially and psychologically motivated groups targeting cyber assets. Serious games often treat security in red (offensive) and blue (defensive) terms. This chapter is mapping the potential differences that arise when the threat actor profile is presented in addition to the scenario, allowing the response plans of hospitals to be tailored to the specific threat. As the result, two contrasting scenarios are introduced, generating a response plan for a geopolitically-motivated hacker group and ideologically-motivated hacktivist. This approach could be further applied to cyber preparedness in hospitals, utilizing the process described in this study.


[FORTHCOMING] Analogia and Intersector - games as a basis for automatic analogy analysis
Mathieu Lafourcade, Nathalie Le Brun, Jérémie Roux

computer system’s ability to analyze texts semantically involves interpreting figurative content. Analogy is often used to convey new ideas through similarity with known ideas. Comparison and metaphor can be modeled as an analogical square A : B :: C : D (meaning A is to B what C is to D) with one or more variables whose most relevant values must be found. This article presents two games for collecting lexical data related to analogies. The first game, Analogia, is an adaptation of JeuxDeMots to analogies, where the player has to provide the most relevant answers for an analogy to a variable. For example, find x for “coal is to black what snow is to x”. The second game, Intersector, involves answering questions to find out what the 4 terms in an analogy have in common. The terms proposed are those taken from the analogies in the Analogia game. All the data collected by these games makes it possible to automatically resolve analogies, and thus interpret figurative content.


[FORTHCOMING] Digital Technologies and Information Inflation: A DICS Perspective
Jean-Louis Monino

The strategic importance of information in a country’s competitiveness and business management. In the knowledge society, economic information, which differs from other goods, is crucial to competitive advantage. Companies that access relevant information (market, legal, technological, etc.) before others can make more informed strategic decisions. With the massive increase in available data, business intelligence becomes essential for filtering and organizing this information. Integrating artificial intelligence (AI) into business processes requires a methodical approach, including the development of customized AI solutions, their integration with existing systems, and their use to improve or create innovative services that enhance the customer experience.


Charlie Brooker’s series Black Mirror : mirror dystopia or dystopian mirror?
Marilyn Lemery

Charlie Brooker’s Black Mirror series is a futuristic projection of new technologies whose primary objective is to improve our daily lives. The series examines artificial intelligence, digitalisation, gamification and robotisation of our daily lives, augmented reality and virtual reality. The mirror held up by Charlie Brooker is sometimes blackened, sometimes true to our reality. The series reflects the utopian intentions of the technologies implemented and shows to what extent human use reminds us of the dangers and highlights the dystopian side of all these new technologies when man appropriates or distorts them to serve his own interests. These works of anticipation, by hybridising the fictional and the real, reveal both the dystopian and the mirror aspects, allowing the viewer to engage in both a reflective and self-reflexive process.


[FORTHCOMING] Interdisciplinary model for designing adapted environments: case of the visually impaired elderly user
Estelle Guerry

This article reports on the research conducted during my PhD “Color in the visual environment: perception(s), reading(s), interpretation(s) and impact(s) on the elderly user. From the perspective of the lighting engineer (science and technology of lighting systems) and the color designer (applied art, design)”. Starting from the premise that maintaining the ability of older people to carry out their daily activities is an important lever for maintaining their quality of life, I have developed a new design method. It’s combines color design and lighting science and represents the beginning of a non-pharmacological strategy that leads to the design of environments adapted to the needs of older users with visual impairments. This study shows that this strategy can also be applied to cognitive disorders. This systemic approach is thus a driving force for a social innovation that breaks with current methods of care.


[FORTHCOMING] Remote working and innovation: The trust needed to invent new ways of working together?
Sandrine Virgili, Frédéric Bornarel, Hélène Delacour

Recent pandemics have forced most companies to experiment with remote working to varying degrees. Despite the exceptional productivity of employees in this crisis context and the desire of employees to continue working remotely, the most innovative companies are making a strong case for more face-to-face work. This movement, called ”return to the office" is seen as the only way to create effective collaboration in innovative teams. In this paper, we show that the „return to the office‟ argument is based on a narrow conception of face-to-face trust or affect-based trust, as the main driver of collaborative dynamics. On the contrary, drawing on trust and innovation management research, we emphasize that distance does not limit the production of effective trust for innovative teams. Moreover, we propose a new articulation between two forms of trust, swift trust and reflective trust, i.e., the “swift reflective trust”, to support a new hybrid way of working that fosters collaboration and innovation.


[FORTHCOMING] The French army’s Red Team program, a bet on the dysperformativity of science fiction
Thomas Michaud

The French army’s Red Team program consists of creating science fiction stories with the aim of anticipating conflicts that could threaten the territory by 2030-2060. Part of the trend of institutional science fiction, it is based on the capacity to arouse the cognitive strangeness dear to Darko Suvin and to create novum (imaginary technologies) vectors of difficulties, but also of solutions in the wars of the future. If certain novum have a performative function, the diegesis, that is to say the spatiotemporal environment of the story, takes on more of a dysperformative dimension. These stories seek to arouse the reaction of soldiers to imaginary dangers so that they implement strategies in advance to avoid their occurrence. Science fiction authors capture the unconscious of organizations and reveal their prophetic imaginaries. Innovism is also a true ideology pragmatically using the imaginary to question the established order and generate new ideas that are sources of creative destruction. The Red Team also brings the French army into a regime of historicity oriented towards the future, more than towards the battles of the past. Science fiction is also a paradoxical genre, involving a specific interpretation of reality and the future. It is therefore appropriate to question the advantages and possible disadvantages linked to the use of a paradoxical vision of the future in the development of an organization’s strategies aimed above all at efficiency and pragmatism.


[FORTHCOMING] Qualificative artificial intelligence (QuAI). When artificial intelligence integrates all the diversity of human critical thinking
Florin Paun, Ingrid Vaileanu, Thomas O’neal, Laurent Chaudron

In the light of the contributions of the logics of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and disruptive innovations [ADA, 18] and research issues on solutions for participatory qualification of impact data recalling older questions and analyzes including the Condorcet paradox [CON 85] and the incompleteness theorem of Arrow [ARR 51] or of Nobel Prize winner Amartya Sen [SEN 70] on the evolution of economic models towards an economy of well-being with collective choice we propose possible responses for co-construction of new highly collaborative open qualification tools and processes [PAU 12]. By taking into account the diversity of open innovation actors to integrate the capabilities augmented by AI, we manage to integrate ex ante into highly democratic processes and AI tools the diversity of evolving determinants of opinions on the perceived impacts on everything. topics of common interest expressed. This leads our research towards the discovery [PAU 22] of a third typology of AI in addition to the symbolic one and the connective one: the Qualificative Artificial Intelligence (QuAI) - with the ability to integrate human critical thinking. New spaces – QuAI tools, collaborative open qualification processes – can thus lead to optimal choices through collaboration and the collective creation of relevance and trust, particularly through new dynamic capabilities that potentially create disruptive innovations. Several usage functionalities are identified in terms of developments towards a functionality economy [VAI, 20]. and the democratization of access and contribution to impact data aimed at disruptive innovative solutions and tools for resilience [SCH 22] considering the multifaceted (economic, climate change, confidence) crises [PAU 09, 12, 18].


[FORTHCOMING] Digitalisation in agriculture : towards an agroecological transformation ?
Eléonore Schnebelin

Both private and public actors promote digitalisation as a way of contributing to the agroecological transition of agriculture. However, the actual effects of digital technology on the agroecological transition is a matter of controversy. The objective of this article is to investigate how digitalisation affects and interacts with the diversity of agricultural models. To do so, it proposes an institutional economic and multi-level analysis of innovation system, implemented through a methodology that combines quantitative and qualitative analysis. At the level of the Agricultural Innovation System, it demonstrates that depending on their involvement in organic or conventional farming, actors do not perceive the same potential and risks and enact digitalisation differently. Organisations that promote digital in agriculture seem not to perceive this heterogeneity. At farm level, based on 98 interviews with field crop farmers in Occitanie, I construct digital technology use profiles. Current digital use mostly supports weak or symbolic ecologisation, tied with the industrialization of farms, which is characterised by expansion, specialization, the growing of outsourcing activities and salaried workforce as well as a deeper value-chain integration. This article highlights that, depending on the agricultural model to which the actors belong, they do not have the same perceptions and uses of digital technology. Digitalisation does not appear to be the result of so-called ’pioneering’ behaviour, but depends on the diversity of models and paradigms, in interaction with a socio-economic system that proposes, encourages or even imposes these technologies. Current digitalisation presents several forms of opposition to the agroecological transition of agriculture, whether in terms of techniques, objectives, reasoning, temporal dynamics or political and social issues. However, hybridisations of digitalization and ecologisation seem possible in the case of industrial forms of ecologisation. A deeper contribution of digitalisation to ecologisation would imply rethinking its technical, economic and political models.


[FORTHCOMING] Wargaming, a serious war game practice, simulation and digital technology opportunities
Stéphane Goria

The professional or semi-professional practice of wargames is called wargaming. It encompasses numerous forms of war simulation that share the commonality of being serious games based on data derived from the field and/or aimed at collecting new data. Their use can be educational, preparatory for planification, exploratory, or prospective. Wargame can be played in a physical or computerized format, or even in a hybrid form combining these alternatives. Drawing on a literature review on this subject, this article aims to shed light on the different categories of wargames practiced by the military, as well as the advantages, disadvantages, and risks of physical wargames compared to digital ones.


[FORTHCOMING] Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Defense Innovations: Theoretical Proposals and Illustrations
Pierre Barbaroux

This contribution questions the dynamics of the aerospace and defense (A&D) industries by identifying the main factors acting on innovation. Based on the model developed by [BAR 19] and [BAR 20], the research examines the dynamics of defense innovations incorporating components from Artificial Intelligence (AI) research. Considered as a General Purpose Technology (GPT; [BRE 96]), AI and its multiple applications have a significant impact on current and future military capabilities, and constitute relevant empirical material for understanding how innovation operates in the A&D industries.


[FORTHCOMING] New Space Representations in Science Fiction, From a Global Vision to a European Perspective
Thomas Michaud

New Space designates the emergence of an economic system in the space sector in which more and more private actors are called upon to participate. Science fiction has been offering representations of the companies of space capitalism for several years. This article studies some of them, such as the films Space Sweepers, Venom, or the Salvation series, and shows that the figure of the New Space billionaire arouses both fascination and rejection. If these fictions are inspired by real characters like Elon Musk, they also influence the general public and the actors of the space sector. These stories are at the center of strategic and soft power issues. It is suggested that Europe should equip itself with an effective and performative system for creating space science fiction stories in order to optimize the creativity of its future entrepreneurs. Indeed, these stories often offer a reflection on the ethics of space conquest and imagine technologies that could become major innovations in the future.


[FORTHCOMING] The New Space: Ruptures and Transformations of the Space Ecosystem
Christophe Bénaroya, Victor Dos Santos Paulino

After a first long phase of governmental and scientific development, the space sector has been shaken up by new approaches during the 2000s, grouped under the generic term "New Space". Through the study of the evolution of this ecosystem, this academic work proposes a characterization of the New Space, considered as a set of ruptures composed of new entrants, new applications, new technologies, new regulations, new processes, and new modes of financing. But, beyond that, it emphasizes that these breakthroughs are fed by their interaction and interdependence. Finally, this richness of the New Space leads us to identify the numerous implications for the economic and management sciences, whether in terms of research programs or teaching.


[FORTHCOMING] Patent ‘Wars’: Between Myth and Reality
Marc Baudry, Beatrice Dumont

The proliferation of patent litigation is indicative of the tension that exists between, on the one hand, the need to ensure interoperability and compatibility between a product’s components and, on the other, respect for intellectual property (IP) rights. In this article, we show that this tension is not new. Patent "wars" have historically been associated with breakthrough innovations, and reflect the growing importance of business models based on the valorisation of IP. While recognizing the sometimes deleterious effects of the litigation dynamic, litigation can be seen as a means of ex-post adjusting the scope of rights conferred by IP.


[FORTHCOMING] Boosting the Innovation Capacity of SMEs in a Changing World
Claudine Gay, Bérangère Szostak

Despite their strengths, SMEs appear to have an insufficiently exploited potential for innovation. This is especially true in times of crisis. In a context characterised by three sources of destabilisation – economy of platform, the COVID-19 health crisis and market tensions – this article aims to suggest ways of boosting the innovation capacity of SMEs. After recalling the main obstacles of SMEs in terms of innovation – which are mainly due to limited access to resources –, and their main strength – which is mainly due to their organisational structure –, we consider how these changes challenge the capacity of SMEs to innovate. The resulting management and research issues lead us to shift the cursor from the SME’s manager to its teams and from outside collaborative innovation to inside collaborative innovation.


[FORTHCOMING] Agility and Resilience of the French “Industrie du Futur” During the Covid-19 Pandemic: Insights from a Multi-dimensional Framework
Marcos Lima, Patricia Baudier, Marie Haikel Elsabeh, Michel Dalmas

This multi-case study analyzes the role of organizational factors influencing Industry 5.0 resilience during the early stages of the Covid-19 pandemic in France. McKinsey’s 7S framework is used to understand how eight French Small and Medium Businesses belonging to the “Industrie du Futur” alliance adapted their strategy, structure, systems, skills, staff, shared values and management style while relying on their shared values to develop organizational agility and resilience. Our findings confirm that, even if technology systems were a key component of their response to the Covid-19 situation, human elements also played a central role in their ability to cope with the crisis. Our research also shed light on the importance of stakeholder networks in an organization’s ability to adapt and prosper during crises. The resulting framework could help companies to develop a human-centric approach to agility and resilience.


[FORTHCOMING] From Innovative Milieu to Eco-innovative Milieu: Towards a Sustainable Territorial Development
Fedoua Kasmi

The aim of this article is to discuss the potential of the eco-innovative milieu for understanding the dynamics of sustainable local innovation. This approach is mainly based on the European theory of innovative milieus but seeks to integrate the sustainability dimension in the analysis of territorial innovation networks. We consider that the industrial symbioses, in which a collective of territorial actors are linked by relations of valorization of material and waste flows, can take the form of an eco-innovative milieu. These relationships can be at the origin of the emergence of new dynamics of innovation through the collective learning that results from the common management of resources in the territory (adoption of new eco-responsible practices, development of new sustainable technologies, reinforcement of communication and exchange of knowledge around these new practices...). We illustrate our reasoning with an example of application to the industrial territory of Dunkirk, France.