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Vol 2 - Issue 1

Science, Technology, Development

List of Articles

Bioeconomy and sustainable conservation of plants and forests in Madagascar
Hery Lisy Tiana Ranarijaona, Tiantsoa Andrianasetra, Liva Jackson Raharinaivo, Vololoniaina Ramahatafandry, Michaël Befinoana, Auguste Botovao Ramiandrisoa, Cyrille Maharombaka, Sylvana Tomboanona, Chéri Christian Totondrabesa, Fenozo Andriamanantena, Simon Georges Andrianasetra, Ainazo Andriamanantena, Antoine Zafera Rabesa

Madagascar is very rich in biodiversity; 90% of the species are endemic. Due to anthropogenic pressures, threatened and endangered species are ranked by the IUCN. However, entire groups of plants are still not well-known and new taxa are still being discovered, and Malagasy education is too theoretical and imaginary. Also, the population’s dependence on medicinal plants, through their daily use to prevent covid-19, has been noted. These are the reasons for the creation of the innovative botanical garden; a garden with the involvement of 3Ps and the local population. The aim is to demonstrate human dependence on traditional medicinal plants as well as new uses of plants, in order to strengthen their conservation, economy and sustainable development. This dependence is based on cultural, cosmetic and pharmacopoeia plans as well as conservation. Based on historical data, a survey of medicinal plants used to prevent Covid-19 was conducted in July 2020 through investigations of the population of Mahajanga and its periphery. Lists of plants, including those extracted for essential oil, are highlighted, with scientific information about them added. The connection of a garden with a dense dry forest, restored with two endemic plants and their essential oil, is provided. Thus, the Mahajanga Botanic Garden and University Forest could be key to understanding bioeconomy. To demonstrate innovation and address climate change, the creation of virtuous bioeconomy projects for sustainable institutional development and partnership is studied.

Frugal agro-environmental innovation and sustainable development
Paul Bouvier-Patron

There is a struggle for fundamental needs, including that of nutrition, to be achieved at the global scale. At the moment, the main effort has been to ask local actors to adopt an external model. However, when considerations are taken into account regarding the environment as well as climate change, a shift towards a qualitative model is necessary to help take on this situation. A successful model must mobilize technology at a certain level in order to produce useful and required systems and goods. One must combine technological innovation with organizational innovation in order to select good practices (whether these are new or old practices) that respond to the constraints of local production and consumption that can be compatible with sustainable development. Consequently, for agriculture, as for other sectors, we put forward the concept of environmental frugal innovation. Indeed, if the marketing appropriation of technology is a dead end, then a frugal approach is only acceptable if, at the conception level, sustainable development is taken into account. In order for this to be achieved, this type of innovation must rely on creativity based on improvisation and bricolage, at the local level within a community of local practices. After a general presentation about nutrition, technology and development, where emphasis is placed on the question of satisfactory technology, we propose as an example, for educational purposes, the evolution and cultivation of two world cereals, sorghum and rice. These two could be fruitful (and could lead to a new model to follow) for a healthy diet for all, all while being mindful of the natural environment, especially in the face of climate change.

Explanatory factors for private sector participation in the financing of innovative projects through public-private partnership: case of sub-Saharan Africa
Kubeterzié Constantin Dabire, Soboua Thera, Eric Lamarque, Israel Sawadogo

The objective of this study is to uncover, through hypothesis testing, the identification of the determinants that justify the intentions of the private sector to come and invest in infrastructure through Public-Private Partnerships (PPP) in sub-Saharan Africa in the field of information and communication technology (ICT). We refer to this type of PPP as “Innovative PPP”. The main source of data comes from the World Bank’s Public Private Infrastructure (PPI) project database for the period 2000–2019. The results reveal two (2) specific factors that justify the interest of the private sector in investing in a country’s innovative PPPs: (i) the size of the population, which characterizes the size of the market and; (ii) the quality of the administration index that materializes the degree of efficiency of public administration in a country. These two variables must be taken into account to attract the private sector to finance innovative PPPs in sub-Saharan Africa.

Contribution of frugal innovation to the improvement of living conditions in developing countries: The case of mobile money companies in Burkina Faso
Barnabé Yampa, Noswaoga Cécile Tiemtore

In developing countries, and more particularly in Burkina Faso, the development of mobile money is dazzling. In just a few years, this innovation has taken centre stage among the various mobile phone users. This article aims to answer the following question: How does mobile money contribute to improving the living conditions of the BoP population in Burkina Faso? To answer this question, we used a qualitative methodology based on semi-structured interviews. A total of fifteen (15) face-to-face interviews were conducted with promoters of mobile money shops in Ouagadougou. The main results show that in view of the accessibility of mobile money, its visibility, its low cost and its quality, mobile money is a frugal innovation and contributes significantly to improving the living conditions of the BoP population. This research can be a source of motivation for other frugal innovations that could be implemented in other areas in order to meet Sustainable Development Goals, in particular regarding the fight against poverty.

The contribution of “Food Hubs” in the digital age within the sustainable “agri-food” transition: a review of research in sub-Saharan Africa
Gérard De La Paix Bayiha

In sub-Saharan Africa, managing the growing gap between rural supply and urban demand for good quality food products has become a serious challenge. This calls for an analysis of territorial innovation with a view to uncover an innovative model of sustainable urban supply, such as that of “Food Hubs”. To address this issue, this study questions the place they occupy in the context of digital development within scientific work, to accompany the transition to sustainable “agri-food” systems. Thus, we conducted a search on Google Scholar using the “Publish or Perish” software. The results show that, of the 105 articles published in peer-reviewed journals, there were none that focused on cities in sub-Saharan African countries. This result contrasts with the existence, as of February 2022, of ten Food Hubs in this part of the African continent. This work, therefore, recommends that case studies be carried out on these Food Hubs.

Socio-historical impact on management styles in the French Small Island Economy of Guadeloupe: critical discussion of paternalistic management
Johanna Pierre-Justin Virapatirin

The evolution of the French West Indies should be put into perspective with their postcolonial trajectory; doing this will help explain to what extent “the problem of culture” underpins the social construction of companies. What makes our research original is that we conceptualize the management styles of the French Small Island Economy of Guadeloupe in light of its colonial past. Structural equation modeling of its paternalistic management styles is implemented for this purpose.

Prospective analysis and proposal of a model of localized coevolution between science, technology and innovation in Senegal
Cheikh Abdou Lahad Thiaw

In a changing global economy, innovation is regarded as the driving force of economies and raises questions about the ideal structure of developing countries’ economic environment. In this context, the coevolution between science, technology and innovation (ST-I) is a determining factor for the emergence of Senegal. While the localization of innovation has been the subject of many research studies, few studies have tackled the interrelation between these three concepts or the impact of their localized coevolution on the economic development processes of countries. However, the combination of the conducive conditions necessary for the success of such coevolution seems to currently be limited in Senegal, so the establishment of a national innovation system and the promotion of localized innovation are needed to boost the competitiveness of companies and to solidify the economy. In fact, the country must upgrade its political strategies to strengthen its innovation capabilities, consolidate its institutions and organize its economic actors.

The Role of Performance and Competitiveness in the Adoption of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) by Microfinance Institutions (MFIs) in Cameroon
Alain Gilles Foka Tagne, Prince Hikouatcha, Wulli Faustin Djoufouet, Léopold Djoutsa Wamba

This article analyzes financial and social performance as determinants in the adoption of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in Microfinance Institutions (MFIs) in Cameroon. The data for this study were obtained from a questionnaire survey of 96 MFIs. Following the construction of an index for each of our principal variables, the Ordinary Least Squares method is used to estimate a multiple linear model. Results show that the level of ICT adoption in MFIs depends on both their financial and social performance levels. More specifically, the level of ICT adoption by MFIs is positively associated with the financial dimension of performance and negatively with its social dimension. However, the search for competitiveness does not drive ICT adoption. In addition, the manager’s age and gender, the MFI’s size and age and the staff’s ability to learn how to use ICT also play an important role in ICT adoption.

Total processing of soy Glycine max through valorization of the tofu whey in cosmetic products
Dinah Andrianjafy, Helga Rim Farasoa, Felamboahangy Rasoarahona

Natural cosmetics offer an opportunity for developing countries to undergo an economic transformation, because of the high market trends for these products. However, the over-exploitation of endangered plant species presents a potential danger to the ecology, and in the long term will have a negative long-term impact for the ecology and economy for these countries. The valorization of cultivable plants is therefore a solution of choice. Soy is known for its nutraceutical qualities, and this food is widely used in Madagascar to fight against malnutrition. Soy cheese is a popular source of protein that is beginning to be well accepted by the Madagascan population as part of an improvement in nutritional quality. Its popularization is however limited by its need for a cold chain for its market distribution and due to its short shelf life. Aromatic herbs have antimicrobial properties and some are also endowed with antioxidant properties. These are two useful criteria for the preservation of food products. The addition of aromatic herbs in the composition of soy cheese and a light heat treatment has resulted in a longer shelf life and improved its taste. Tofu whey contains more nutrients, not only for food, but also for the skin. Cosmetic care products have been manufactured using tofu whey as the main active ingredient. This total processing of soy avoids wasting the by-products and brings a value-added activity to its processing.

Introduction of the Chicken Egg Chorioallontoic Membrane Test for Cosmetic Products in a Madagascan Context
Eugénie Josephine, Helga Rim Farasoa, Rabarisoa Herilalaina

Natural skin-care and wellness products are of increasing interest to consumers. For example, between 2015 and 2019, the global growth recorded for this market was up 10 to 11% [FER 21]. This situation offers a favourable opportunity for developing countries. However, in order to be able to offer products on the international market, these countries must comply with the regulations and standards imposed by international trade. Among these regulations, European legislation has banned animal model testing for cosmetics. [JOU 09]. Since a hen’s egg embryo is not considered an animal in most countries before 17 days of incubation, the use of the chorioallontoic membrane HET CAM test is a proposed alternative method. Furthermore, before 14 days, most agree that the embryo does not yet experience pain [RIB 16]. In a Madagascan context, where material and financial means are limited, the HET CAM method is an inexpensive and easy-to-perform procedure for testing cosmetics. After an evaluation of the possible appropriate techniques, natural brooding was chosen as the most suitable system for Madagascar. Some locally produced cosmetic creams were tested. Although HET CAM is widely recognized in many countries as a valid method for testing irritant products, tests on rabbits’ ears were performed for comparison purposes [BUD 21]. The good adaptability and flexibility of this technique has been demonstrated. In the Madagascan socio-economic context, this is an easy and beneficial technology transfer.

Valorization of the date industry in Tunisia by combining "modern" and "traditional" knowledge and techniques: difficulties, successes and prospects
Yasmine Boughzala, Néfissa Ben Mahmoud

This article analyzes the date industry of Tunisia by highlighting the structuring of this agricultural value chain in terms of its various strategic, economic and social issues. The objective of this article is to elucidate the different impacts of these challenges on the organizations within this sector. The methodology adopted is qualitative and based on semi-directive interviews with experts in the sector. Government data has also been analyzed as secondary sources. The results showed a two-speed agricultural value chain, in this case a lack of structuring between the links in the chain despite the existence of international leadership regarding value exports, technical challenges to be met in order to be part of a more impactful global value chain, and strategic local issues around a more equitable and inclusive value chain. The challenges and prospects highlighted involve both public authorities and the various local and international stakeholders involved in this sector.

Digital transition in cultural and creative clusters in Algeria: brassware in Constantine and jewelry in Batna
Lamis Benmanseur

In the digital era, very small businesses have to adapt to changes and make a transition to ICT, to maintain and boost their competitiveness. In this perspective and to enhance and promote crafts in Algeria, the Directorate General of Crafts and Trades has opted for a twinning with the European Union in order to support the installation of two clusters of cultural and creative industries: the copperware cluster developed in Constantine and the jewelry cluster in Batna. Indeed, the theory of clusters attributes the insertion of technologies and innovation to externalities of agglomeration and local interactions. The objective of this work is therefore to try to understand the attitudes of artisan members of cultural and creative clusters in Algeria, regarding the integration of ICT. To achieve this article, we managed a qualitative study to explore our research phenomenon. This will allow us to highlight the constructs that shape the technological and innovative behaviors of artisans within clusters.

Business innovation and emerging countries: from a North-dominated logic to a South-generated logic
Camal Gallouj

Most of the studies devoted to commercial innovation in emerging countries consider it as necessarily and exclusively originating in Northern developed countries. This innovation, produced in the Northern developed countries, is simply adopted by the emerging ones, which then follow a totally dependent logic. The objective of this contribution is to show that this North-dominated innovation logic is far from corresponding to today’s reality. Indeed, we believe that the Southern developing or emerging countries have a much more proactive approach to innovation. The latter, when it comes from the North, is not adopted as is but is often modified in depth to be better adapted to the specificities of the local markets. Moreover, the Southern countries following a reverse innovation pattern are increasingly initiating innovations that go as far as going up the traditional diffusion route (as mentioned in academic work) to impose themselves on the Northern countries.

Impact of good agricultural practices on cashew nut crop yields in Senegal
Blaise Waly Basse, Souleymane Mbaye, Omar Diop

Senegal has started a process of structural transformation of its economy building on sectors that offer advantages in terms of agricultural productivity. In this context, cashew nut agricultural projects have been developed to encourage producers to respect good farming practices. To identify the impact of these good practices, a survey was conducted in 2018 among 228 cashew producers in the department of Kolda. To obtain relevant results, the instrumental variable method was chosen to take into account the endogeneity problem of the good practice adoption and to minimize the bias induced by both observable and unobservable characteristics. The results show a positive and significant impact of the adoption of these good agricultural practices on the yields of adopting farmers with or without interaction. The results indicate that adherence to the GAPs has a significant impact regardless of the gender of the farmers, although the impact is higher for women. Our results show that a change in behavior (adoption of good agricultural practices) from cashew producers can be a good instrument for increasing cashew productivity in Senegal. Thus, for a sustainable cashew nut sector, adoption strategies can be developed by mobilizing all actors (community radio stations, village chiefs, development actors, supervisory and research structures...).

Technology, Innovation and Sustainability of the Soybean Chain: Study of the Cameroonian Cotton Front Facing Environmental Challenges
Eric Joël Fofiri Nzossie, Darryl Neil Nitcheu Wakponou, Christophe Bring

The Cameroonian cotton basin front in the Sudano-Sahelian area is experiencing a soybean production upsurgence driven by growing demand from the national agri-food sector and the cross-border market with Nigeria. This upsurgence is bringing about profound changes in local agro-systems. Going from a simple crop that was not referenced in regional agricultural statistics, since 2010, the soybean has become the second most important legume crop after groundnuts, cowpeas and voandzou. The rapid increase in cultivated areas from 6,705 ha in 2008 to 15,020 ha in 2018 is indicative of the enthusiasm shown by farmers for this speculation, which, despite a lack of supervision from the government, is now forming a value chain. This upsurgence is also on another level the bringer of environmental issues in a space exposed to the accelerated degradation of its natural environment. Thus, the objective of this research paper is to analyze the environmental issues generated by soybean production. The results show that soybean production causes vegetation cover loss and soil degradation. The first issue deals with the extension of cultivated areas through land clearing. The second is inherent in the massive use of phytosanitary products, especially glyphosate, whose use to control weeds contributes to accelerating soil acidification.

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