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Vol 4 - Issue 1

Urban Risks


List of Articles

Location and estimation of waste volumes following Hurricane Irma in Saint-Martin

Les ouragans génèrent de grandes quantités de déchets directement liés aux impacts induits. La gestion de ces déchets constitue alors un enjeu majeur de la gestion de crise post-ouragan. L’ouragan Irma qui a touché les Caraïbes début septembre 2017, en particulier les îles de Saint-Martin et de Saint-Barthélemy, est un exemple frappant de cette problématique. Ce travail s’insère dans le projet ANR DéPOs qui vise à proposer des outils permettant d’améliorer la collecte des déchets post-ouragans dans les Antilles françaises. Dans ce cadre, nous présentons des analyses relatives à la localisation des bâtiments détruits et une estimation de la quantité de déchets provenant des bâtiments. Les recherches menées ont abouti à la conception d’un modèle d’analyse de la collecte des déchets post-ouragans et d’une fonction d’estimation des volumes de déchets générés par un ouragan lorsque les impacts sont connus. Ces recherches constituent une première étape dans le développement d’un système d’information devant permettre d’améliorer la collecte des déchets post-ouragan dans les Antilles françaises.


Building resilient cities: designing resilience in a performative way. The 100RC program.

Resilience is a highly controversial scientific concept that has been widely disseminated in international policies and frameworks. However, operationalizing resilience remains problematic. This paper aims to understand how local actors, in this case cities, implement the resilience imperative. We analyze 82 resilience strategies produced by the cities that have joined the 100 Resilient Cities network, supported by the Rockefeller Foundation. We show that, on the one hand, resilience is not a given baseline that guides urban policies, but a local construction adapted to the specificities and characteristics of each city. Resilience is place-based designed in a performative way, as local actors grasp it and give it content. On the other hand, rather than specific objectives, we argue that resilience provides a method for both recognizing vulnerability and transforming security governance, thereby changing the risk and threat management regime.


Urban resilience: Issues, context and operationalization pathways

Faced with increasing risks, risk management has gradually evolved by integrating new approaches, such as the concept of resilience. An innovative and relevant concept in the systemic approach to risks, resilience is nevertheless struggling to become operational. This term, which has become abstract, is not very appropriate for local actors and often remains at the level of political discourse. The challenge of current research in risk management is therefore to work on the operationalization of the concept by proposing decision support tools. This article presents different methodologies to overcome the abstraction of the concept. From indicators to modeling tools or collaborative approaches, these approaches aim to operationalize resilience concept. However, despite the contribution of these innovative methodologies, the excessive diversity of approaches adds complexity. This article therefore concludes on the interest of a resilience toolbox in the form of an observatory.


Other issues :

2017

Volume 17- 1

Issue 1

2018

Volume 18- 2

Issue 1

Issue 2

2019

Volume 19- 3

Issue 1

2020

Volume 20- 4

Issue 1